Friday, February 3, 2017

气候科幻小说能拯救地球吗? = Can ''Climate science fiction'' save the Earth? (reprinted from the China Daily in Beijing who got permission from the Atlantic's editors to reprint this in Mandarin Chinese and paid the author a few for the reprint rights.



气候科幻小说能拯救地球吗? = Can ''Climate science fiction''  save the Earth? (reprinted from the China Daily in Beijing,  China who got permission from the Atlantic's editors to reprint this in Mandarin Chinese and paid the author a few for the reprint rights.

https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/08/climate-fiction-margaret-atwood-literature/400112/





气候科幻小说能拯救地球吗?

作者:Miss J.K. ULLRICH who originally wrote this in 2014 for the ATLANTIC magazine in the USA.   来源:中国日报网
 
Original: selected from the " Atlantic Monthly in the USA, with permission from the editors of the Atlantic and with payment to the author JK Ullrich as well.
https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/08/climate-fiction-margaret-atwood-literature/400112/
Translator: Zhang Singsegae
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    近来一种新的文学体裁引起了很多年轻人的共鸣,它着眼于全球环境问题的恶果,同时也让年轻一代们参与其中,为地球的可持续发展出谋划策。

气候科幻小说能拯救地球吗?

    美国西南地区因干旱而导致人口大量死亡。在内华达州和亚利桑那州因各自占有的科罗拉多河份额日益减少而争论不休之时,一旁的加州却虎视眈眈,想将其全部据为己有。在这个“滴水贵如金,同盟逝如沙”的时代,荒漠里的唯一真理就是:想喝水,先流血。

    上述有关美国西部大旱灾的说法或许略显夸张——就目前而言,这种设想还只是虚构的。这是作家保罗·巴斯加卢比(Paolo Bacigalupi)作品《水刃》(The Water Knife)的前导宣传语。如今,以气候变化为主题的小说风头正劲,这本书也是其中的新作之一。这类体裁的作品常称为“气候科幻”(climate fiction, cli-fi ),简而言之,就是探讨气候变化可能带来的极端后果。
其实此类概念也并非新鲜事物。19世纪80年代,儒勒·凡尔纳(Jules Verne)在他一些小说中就尝试过这类概念,但人为因素造成气候变化的主题直到进入20世纪才开始出现在文学作品中。20世纪60年代,英国作家J.G.巴拉德(J.G. Ballard)开创了世界末日主题的文学创造风潮,比如小说《神秘来风》(The Wind from Nowhere)。随着公众环保意识的提高,此类主题的小说人气也越来越旺,如今在购物网站亚马逊上搜索“气候科幻”,有1300多条结果。
步入千禧年之后,气候科幻已由原来科幻小说的分支发展为自成一派的文学体裁。和以往的科幻文学不同,该体裁的故事很少关注人们虚构的科技,或是天边遥远的行星。它重点关注的是地球,审视各类污染、海平面上升、全球变暖对人类文明的影响。这类文学体裁越来越多地出现在大学课程里,在科技与人文学科和行动主义间架起了沟通的桥梁,让年轻读者们更容易接受环保话题——由此可见,在各种应对全球变暖问题的举措中,文学发挥的作用超乎人们的想象。
现在,气候主题的电视电影在大小荧幕上都渐渐兴起,这对于吸引年轻人的兴趣大有帮助。2014年,克里斯托弗·诺兰(Christopher Nolan)执导的史诗巨制《星际穿越》(Interstellar)中,美国中西部变成了沙尘暴地区,前途堪忧,人类只好寻找新的星球定居。电影《雪国列车》(Snowpiercer)里,人们阻止全球变暖的实验失败,导致人类重新进入了冰河纪。作家玛格丽特·阿特伍德(Margaret Atwood)大受欢迎的气候小说三部曲《疯狂的亚当》(MaddAddam)正由HBO电视台改编拍为电视剧,而该频道另一部人气颇高的电视剧《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)也有意无意地触及了全球变暖的主题。
作家兼环境活动家丹·布鲁姆(Dan Bloom)在2008年左右创造了“cli-fi”(气候科幻)这个词,希望能借此将冗长乏味的 “climate fiction”(气候科幻)变得更有吸引力。布鲁姆说道:“我从没定义过,也没想过要去定义一种新文学体裁。”在他看来,他只是想造个朗朗上口的流行语,以提高全球变暖问题的关注度。这项策略很成功,布鲁姆称,2012年,阿特伍德在Twitter上用了这个词,将其介绍给她的50多万粉丝。此后,“气候科幻”一词慢慢站住了脚跟,出版社和书评人也开始将其视为一种新的文学种类。
从这一方面来看,“气候科幻”的确是一种当代文学现象——诞生之初为一种(通过模仿而传播的)文化迷因,而现在则借助社交媒体的力量成长为独立的文学体裁。如今,Twitter上关于气候科幻小说的标签用得很频繁,好读(Goodreads)上有读者创建的书单,而Facebook上也有一些小组,其中一个小组就专门推荐适合年轻人阅读的气候科幻小说。
想想当代“气候科幻”的起源,我们便不会对其在高中和大学读者群中渐长的人气感到惊讶。在2015年2月《卫报》(The Guardian)的一篇专栏中,“气候科幻”作家萨拉·霍丁(Sarah Holding)撰文称,此类文学体裁“将年轻读者和他们身边的环境重新联系起来,让他们看清其中的价值。尤其在当今社会,年轻人把大量时间都浪费在虚拟世界。”
环境主题的小说与当今青少年文学里的反乌托邦潮流相辅相成。巴斯加卢比的2013年小说《溺水的城市》(The Drowned Cities)和2011年小说《拆船人》(Ship Breaker)向我们展示了海平面上升是如何改变美国地形的,而萨拉·科洛珊(Sarah Crossan)的2012年作品《呼吸》(Breathe)中的主人公就生活在一个由穹顶覆盖的城市里,因为那时的氧气,已经是稀有品了。
此类文学作品带来的并非只有逃离现实的刺激,它已经成为鼓励年轻人进入科研领域的跳板。多年来,在美国学界,学生对STEM课程(科学,技术,建筑,数学)的兴趣逐年下减。2012年,国际学生评估项目的结果显示,美国学生在科学方面的能力表现排名仅为第20名(共34个国家参与)。但目前,从俄勒冈大学(University of Oregon)到剑桥大学继续教育学院(Cambridge University’s Institute of Continuing Education),海内外的许多大学都开设了“气候科幻小说”的相关课程。2015年早些时候,来自霍利奥克大学(Holyoke)的几位学生,为研究巴斯加卢比的获奖小说《发条女孩》(The Windup Girl)中的基因工程概念,提取出了草莓的DNA。在天普大学(Temple University),“气候科幻”课程的学生就经常用他们的班级博客来分享科学新闻,并在书评中引用各类科学文章。一位英语专业的学生在博客中坦言:“其实,面对大量的科技专业术语,我经常不知所云,感觉自己智商不够用。”之后这个学生发布了一篇关于阿特伍德小说《洪灾之年》(Year of the Flood)的书评,内容详尽,探讨气候变化怎样影响多个农业领域,并讨论了其中涉及的化学原理。

气候科幻小说能拯救地球吗?

STEM课程使学生们望而生畏,然而科学与人文的交融却能产生实效,鼓励更多学生投入STEM领域的严肃研究。由文学和创意写作轻松入门,《一次一个词拯救地球》(Saving the World One Word at a Time)的作者艾伦·斯扎伯说道:“对于那些自以为对科学没兴趣的学生来说,科学也变得能够理解了。”他曾提出一种观点,“气候科幻”类文学作品具有将环境问题私人化、去政治化的能力——少把气候变化视作一个毫无人性的话题,反而能最终启发人们实实在在的行动。泰德·豪威尔 在天普大学教授“气候科幻”课程,他称,宣传气候变化的传统方式对于他的学生已不再适用。“一旦他们对全球变暖的基本知识框架有了大致理解,便不想再研读关于全球气温是上升2%还是4%的资料——他们想知道的是该如何应对。”豪威尔说道。
当然,也并非每个人都相信气候科幻小说的潜力。2014年,气候信息网的创始人乔治·马歇尔就曾在《纽约时报》发表文章称,他担心这类科幻小说只会加强人们根深蒂固的想法,而不能改变任何人的观念。“不信气候变化的人只会把这些故事当作证据,证明气候变化是虚构的,作家们为了达到戏剧化效果而夸大其词,”他说道,“已经相信气候变化的人会被故事吸引,但那些夸张的末日故事套路又可能会使他们偏离气候变化的议题,甚至于将问题物化。”
廷德尔气候变化研究中心的研究显示,把气候变化放入小说故事中,可能会减少读者对现实气候变化问题的紧迫感,或是将之简化为没有现实补救措施的模糊概念。天普大学课堂里的学生表示,他们也有同样的感受。“当我们意识到,应对气候变化的真正有效措施需要涉及一系列生活方式上的实质性改变,并会因此在金钱、权利和影响力上有所牺牲时,我们就会感到泄气。”豪威尔说道。虽然失望,但也并非毫无希望。他表示,这些不确定性也能帮助我们强调改革的巨大潜力。
而挑战也在于此。“科学并不能告诉我们该怎么做,”金索沃尔在小说《逃逸》中写道,“只能告诉我们它是什么。”故事本身并不是解决方案,但它们能激励我们去行动,这也许就是气候科幻小说的呼声为什么在年轻读者的心中这么有地位。作为明日的科学家和领导人,他们最有可能解决好前辈们未能完成的任务,解决好气候变化问题。气候科幻小说,与其背后的科学原理一样,所呈现的前景似乎都是一片凄凉。但在这些骇人的预言中,还藏匿着希望,现在改辕易辙也还为时不晚。正如阿特伍德在《疯狂的亚当》中所言,“人们需要这类故事,因为不管前途多么黑暗,有声的黑夜总是好过无声的空虚。”
原文选自:大西洋月刊
译者:张骁 编辑:钦君
 
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Author: J.K. ULLRICH SOURCE: Chinadaily.com.cn
2017-02-03







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Recently a new literary genre aroused many young people the resonance, it focused on the consequences of global environmental issues, but also let the young generations 1 participated in it, for the Sustainable Development of the earth.


Climate science fiction to save the earth?

The south-western region of the United States population caused by the drought and the large number of deaths. In Nevada and Arizona due to their respective share of the Colorado River and the decreasing0.50, next to the 1 California has started to put all of its appropriation. In this way the such as gold, alliance efforts such as sand" era, desertification of the only truth is: Would you like to drink some water to the bloodshed.


The above-mentioned about the United States the large-scale western drought that perhaps a little exaggeration - for the time being, this idea was also just fictitious. This is the writer Paul, plus rupees (paolo bacigalupi) works of the water edge (the water knife, leading advocacy. Today, with climate change as the theme of the novel the limelight, this book is one of the 1 new. Such genre of works are often called "climate science fiction" (climate fiction, cli-fi), in short, is to explore the potential benefits of climate change extreme consequence.
In fact such concepts are not new. 19 Century 80 s, Mr. Joinet, Mr. Jules Verne in his novels in respect of which such concepts tried, but human factors of climate change caused by the subject until you enter the 20 century is beginning to appear in the literature. 20 Century 60 s, British writer J.G. Balad (J.G. ballard) has pioneered a doomsday theme of the literary creation, such as the wave of novel mystery to the wind (the wind from xiamen). As public awareness of environmental protection, the theme of this type are also becoming more popular novels Mong, today in the shopping site Amazon, search for "climate science fiction", and there is more than 1300 results.
Step into the new millennium, climate science fiction by the branch of science fiction development since 1 into the literary genre. And past fantasy literature, the genre of story very little attention to people fictitious technology, or the wayward distant planet. It is the focus of this earth, and examine various types of pollution, sea-level rise, global warming on the impact of human civilization. This type of literary genre appear more and more in the university courses in science and technology and the humanities and activism of building bridges to young readers are more likely to be accepted by the environmental protection issue - it is clear that under the various global warming initiatives, the literature on the role played by the people's imagination.
Now that the theme of the climate in the size of the TV and movies on the screen are gradually on the rise, and this is essential to attract young people to the interest of great help. 2014, Christopher Nolan christopher nolan directed by epic blockbuster star through (a), the United States presented through the central and western regions into the sand and dust storms, and the future is worrying, human had to find new planet for settlement. The Movie Snow Country Train (snowpiercer), people stop global warming experiment failed, causing human re-entered the glacier discipline. The Writer Marguerite Atwood, margaret atwood) popular novel climate the crazy Adam (maddaddam) is being used by the TV with HBO adapted concepts for the drama and the channel 1 of another popular TV show the power game, (game of verb intentionally or unintentionally) also touched on the subject of global warming.
The writer and environmental activists dan (dan bloom) in 2007 about the cli-fi" (climate science fiction) this word, hoping to take this will be tedious "climate fiction" (climate science fiction) become more attractive. Broome says: "I have not defined, nor did they attempted to define a new literature 1 genre. In his view, he had merely wished to make a paragons of popular words to raise global warming issues. The strategy was successful and Broome, 2012, Atwood on twitter used the word to her 50 million vermicelli. Since then, "climate science fiction" 1 word slowly stopped the heel, press and book reviews have also begun as a New Literature 1 types.
1 from this perspective, the "climate science fiction" is indeed a contemporary literature in 1 - 1 for the dawn of a (through the spread of imitation and Culture), mini-and now with the strength of social media development into an independent literary genre. Today, on twitter climate science fiction labels used frequently, good reading (goodreads readers) has created a list of the titles, and there were also some facebook group, one of the teams on specialized recommended suitable for young people read the climate science fiction.
Think of contemporary "climate science fiction is the origin of, we would not have to be in the high school and university readership grew up the popularity was surprised. In 2015 February newspaper The Guardian of the guardian (1) special hink of contemporary "climate science fiction is the origin of, we would not have to be in the high school and university readership grew up the popularity was surprised. In 2015 February newspaper The Guardian of the guardian (1) special column, "climate science fiction" the writer Mr. Salah hodding sarah (holding) the author asserts that this type of literary genre of "young readers and the environment around them again, to make them see the value in. Particularly in today's society, young people to devote a great deal of time is wasted on the virtual world.
The theme of the environment in the novels" with today's youth literature in the anti-utopian trend and mutually reinforcing. Abbas plus Rupees in 2013 novel drowning city (the drowned cities) and 2011 novel and ship (ship breaker) demonstrated to us the sea-level rise is how to change United States terrain, and Sarajevo, Shan (sarah crossan) 2012 works of the Respiration (breathe of living in a vaulted coverage in cities, because by then the oxygen is already scarce commodities.
This type of literary works had not only not only where the reality of incentives, it has become the encourages young people to enter the field of scientific research. For many years, the academia in the United States, students STEM courses (science, technology, construction, mathematics) interest under each year. 2012, International Student Assessment of the results of the project showed that the students in the United States in the scientific capacity performance, ranked the 20th place (34 countries). At present, however, from the university of oregon to Cambridge University to continue the Institute of Vocational Education (cambridge university's institute of continuing education), both at home and abroad for many universities have opened the climate science fiction" of the relevant programs. 2015 earlier from holyoke holyoke College) several students to study, plus rupees prize-winning novel of the girls of the windup girl in genetic engineering concepts and pulls up a strawberry DNA. The Temple University (temple university, "climate science fiction" course of students were often used their class blog to the sharing of scientific information and references Riech wrote in various scientific articles. 1-bit English students in the Blog: "In fact, confronted with a large number of scientific and technological terminology, I often do not know what that feel IQ insufficient. After this the students' released 1 Article on Atwood novel floods of years of (year of the flood of books), informative, explore how climate change affects more than one area of agriculture, and discussed the chemical works.


Climate science fiction to save the earth?

Stem courses enable students seem daunting, but a blend of sciences and humanities; had the practical results, and to encourage more students to inputs in the area of STEM serious study. The literary and creative writing easy to get started, the 1 times a word to save the planet (saving the world one word at a time of the author Allen Stayman, Mazar-i-Sharif, says: "For those who think that they are not interested in science students, have also become capable of understanding the scientific. " he had raised the point 1, "climate science fiction" class literary works with the environmental problem private, depoliticized capacity - less of climate change as a senseless and topics, contrary to the end that inspired the real action. Mr. Ho Prince (Ted Howell) in the Temple University Professor "climate science fiction" course, he said, raising awareness of climate change the traditional method for his students is no longer applicable. "Once they have the global warming framework with a basic knowledge of the broadly understood, they do not want to read about the global temperature is rising 2% 4% or information -- they want to know the how to respond. Howard Johnson Wales."
Of course, this is also not everyone believe climate science fiction potential. 2014, the founder of the web of information for climate  at the New York Times carried an article saying that he was worried that this type of science fiction will only strengthen people ingrained idea, not to change the concept of a person. "Climate change people will only make these stories as evidence to prove that climate change is a fiction and writers in order to achieve dramatic effects and exaggerated," said he, "already believe climate change people will be attracted to the story, but those exaggerated doomsday story set also might enable them to deviate from the subject of climate change, and even the question of materialization. "
Tindal climate change research study shows that the integration of climate change into fiction stories, may reduce the readers in the reality of the climate change issues of urgency, or be simplified as there was no realistic prospect of the vague concept of remedial measures. Temple University students in the classroom said that they also have the same feelings. "When we realize that responses to climate change should truly effective measures need to involve a range of life on the substantive changes and will therefore in money, rights and influence on the sacrifices, we will then be discouraged. Howard Johnson Wales." Although the disappointment, but it also is not hopeless. He said that Stem courses enable students seem daunting, but a blend of sciences and humanities; had the practical results, and to encourage more students to inputs in the area of STEM serious study. The literary and creative writing easy to get started, the 1 times a word to save the planet (saving the world one word at a time of the author Allen Stayman, Mazar-i-Sharif, says: "For those who think that they are not interested in science students, have also become capable of understanding the scientific. " he had raised the point 1, "climate science fiction" class literary works with the environmental problem private, depoliticized capacity - less of climate change as a senseless and topics, contrary to the end that inspired the real action. Mr. Ho Prince (ted howell) in the Temple University Professor "climate science fiction" course, he said, raising awareness of climate change the traditional method for his students is no longer applicable. "Once they have the global warming framework with a basic knowledge of the broadly understood, they do not want to read about the global temperature is rising 2% 4% or information -- they want to know the how to respond. Howard Johnson Wales."
Of course, this is also not everyone believe climate science fiction potential. 2014, the founder of the web of information for climate George Marshall (george marshall) at the New York Times carried an article saying that he was worried that this type of science fiction will only strengthen people ingrained idea, not to change the concept of a person. "Climate change people will only make these stories as evidence to prove that climate change is a fiction and writers in order to achieve dramatic effects and exaggerated," said he, "already believe climate change people will be attracted to the story, but those exaggerated doomsday story set also might enable them to deviate from the subject of climate change, and even the question of materialization. "
Tindal climate change research study shows that the integration of climate change into fiction stories, may reduce the readers in the reality of the climate change issues of urgency, or be simplified as there was no realistic prospect of the vague concept of remedial measures. Temple University students in the classroom said that they also have the same feelings. "When we realize that responses to climate change should truly effective measures need to involve a range of life on the substantive changes and will therefore in money, rights and influence on the sacrifices, we will then be discouraged. Howard Johnson Wales." Although the disappointment, but it also is not hopeless. He said that these uncertainties can also help we stress the great potential of reform.
This is the challenge. "Science does not tell us how to do it" Kim Kosovo's novel escape, wrote, "We can only tell us what it is. " story is not in itself a solution, but they inspire us to act, and that was perhaps climate science fiction the voices of young readers why in the hearts so status. As the leaders of tomorrow, scientists and, who are most likely to resolve the predecessors of the task failed to complete and to resolve the issue of climate change. Climate science fiction, behind the scientific principles, the prospects seem 1 pathetic. But in such terrible in the prophecy, also harboring hope that now undergo also it is not too late. As Atwood in the insanity of Adam, said, "People are in need of this kind of story, because it is the future of how the darkness, with a sound of darkness is better than never silent of emptiness.


Original: selected from the " Atlantic Monthly
https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/08/climate-fiction-margaret-atwood-literature/400112/
Translators: Zhang Singsegae took edit: non-governmental Kwan
 

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